State of Education and Teaching in Indian Universities

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An excellent article written by Krishna Kumar, Professor of Education at Delhi University and a former Director of NCERT, published in THE HINDU news paper.

———— Universities, ours and theirs ————–

As long as we discourage young talent, encourage an obsolete examination system and remain indifferent to research, we will continue to lag behind the West

There are four critical differences between universities of the western world and ours. The first is that they do all they can, when they recruit young faculty, to make way for excellence. We do everything to block its entry. We start discouraging talent early, but a few bright youngsters manage to come up despite our best efforts. They are the ones who face the greatest resistance from our institutions at the time of selection for vacancies. The norms and standards that western institutions apply for selecting young faculty focus on individualised assessment of potential. Senior people and administrators who make decisions make sure that the aspirants are assessed on the basis of what they have published, the quality of research they have done, and how passionate they seem about the pursuit of knowledge and teaching.

Mechanical criteria

In our case, the initial criteria applied are purely mechanical. Any hint of trans-disciplinary interest means that the candidate loses the chance to be interviewed. And those who somehow escape this fate are ultimately sized up at the time of interview in terms of the lobbies they might belong to. Someone rare enough to be independent of personal as well as intellectual lobbies is the first to be eliminated. In the semi-final act of short listing, those lacking support from the dominant lobbies get weeded out. Then, in the ultimate moment, hard bargaining takes place and the institution’s future gets sealed. If there is someone with an unusual background or achievement, you can depend on the selection committee to find a technical ground to reject him or her. The only way he or she might get appointed is if a determined Vice-Chancellor forces the person in. Democratic procedures and correctness have become incompatible with respect for quality. Our universities feel comfortable with the labyrinth of eligibility norms that the University Grants Commission has nurtured with relentless energy to issue circulars over the decades. Selection committees debate over the finest of technicalities to justify the selection of the average, allowing anyone with sheen to get stuck and lost in the maze of criteria.

The second major difference between our universities and the western ones relates to the concept of teaching. We calculate teaching in terms of periods taken. The Radhakrishnan Commission had bemoaned the fact that our colleges work like higher secondary schools. More than six decades after the commission gave its report, life in our undergraduate colleges is just the same. The UGC demands 18 periods of teaching per week from an assistant professor. “Isn’t that reasonable?,” one might ask. Of course, it is, if you ignore what the word “teaching” means. The practice of calculating teachers’ daily work by counting the number of periods they stand beside the blackboard exposes the hollowness of our system and the concept of education. It also shows how little we have progressed since colonial days when accountability was tied to crude measures. How far Britain has moved away from the procedures it introduced in India long ago became apparent to me a year ago when I was invited to serve on a course evaluation committee in a British institute. After examining the course content, the recommended readings and the description of each lecture session taken through the year, the committee met groups of students from the previous three years. We also read the detailed feedback each student is required to give at the end of each course.

Our discussion with students and — separately — with their teachers was frank and detailed. We learnt how students assessed their teachers in terms of preparedness for each class, personal interest in the subject, the pedagogic strategies used to arouse interest, and not just regularity — which was, in fact, taken for granted. In India, we worry about attendance records to keep the student under pressure to attend classes that may be altogether devoid of intellectual stimulation. Despite attendance norms being stringent, there are classes without much attendance. There are also numerous cases of attendance without classes. An obsolete system of examination helps teachers who miss classes and make no effort to relate to students. There are many who take the number of periods required, but their classes have no soul or spark.

Concept of knowledge

The third critical difference between life in an Indian university and a university in the West arises out of the concept of knowledge embedded in the system. The crude measures our regulatory bodies such as the UGC apply in the name of accountability mask the epistemic sterility of the curriculum, the pedagogic process and examination. In the West, curriculum and pedagogy both follow the teacher’s own research interests. Even smaller universities with limited resources attempt to cultivate a research environment. Topics of research reflect the university’s concern for the social and natural world surrounding it. Research is seen as an inquiry to solve problems as well as to induct the young into a community of inquires. Keeping a record of hours spent on direct teaching becomes irrelevant in such a system, even in the case of undergraduate students. To keep their research interests alive and popular, senior professors engage with young undergraduates who bring fresh questions and perspectives to ongoing inquiries. In India, you stop teaching undergraduate classes as soon as you attain professorial status. Teaching and research are seen as two separate activities. While teaching is perceived as institutional work, research is viewed as a personal agenda for moving forward in one’s career. Not surprisingly, infrastructure and administrative procedures that might facilitate research do not exist. Obstacles do, and the teacher who makes the mistake of initiating a research project has to struggle all the way to its completion and the ritual of report submission to the funding agency. No one among colleagues or in the administration cares to know the findings, let alone their implications. Teaching goes on following the grooves of preset syllabi, like the needle boring into an old gramophone record.

The fourth critical difference lies in the library. In the West, even in the most ordinary universities, the library forms the centre of life, both for teachers and students. Librarians enjoy a high status as their contribution to academic life cuts across academic disciplines. They work closely with teachers and students in the various tasks involved in procurement of books and journals, keeping the library quiet and friendly, and ensuring speedy access. Our case is the opposite. The library exists on the margins of the classroom. In many universities, undergraduate students are not allowed to use the university library. Subscription to journals and magazines has dwindled over the years, and maintenance of past volumes is now seen as an obsolete practice because e-storage is available. We forget that the library is not merely a service; it is also a physical space whose ethos induces the young to learn the meaning of belonging to a community of scholars. Our reading rooms carry an unkempt, hapless look, with clanking ceiling fans and dog-eared books waiting to be removed. Book acquisition has been saturated with petty corruption and a crowd of spurious publishers has thrived on the outskirts of the academia.

Symptomatic

These four critical differences are, of course, symptomatic of deeper problems entrenched in structures that govern higher education in India. Those who perceive all problems in financial terms miss the barren landscape of our campuses. Inadequacy of funds is, of course, worrisome, but it cannot explain the extent to which malice, jealousy and cussedness define the fabric of academic life in our country. There is a vast chasm that separates the Indian academia from society. Let alone the masses, even the urban middle class cares little for what goes on inside classrooms and laboratories.

The citizenry does not see higher education as an intellectual resource. Nor do political leaders. The only commonly understood purpose that the system of higher education serves is to alleviate — and keep under tolerable levels of discomfort — what the British economist, Ronald Dore, has called the ‘Diploma Disease’ in his 1976 classic on education in developing economies. Dore has explained why a country like ours will continue to lag behind the West in knowledge and technique so long as we keep using mark-sheets and certificates to screen the young for further education and employment. His insight that the valid goal of widening the pool of talent is defeated by bureaucratisation of selection continues to be pertinent across the colonised world.

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Wama Adraka– What shall explain thee?

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Across Holy Quran, there are several occasions where Allah has asked the question regarding a particular ‘event’ or a ‘heavenly body’ and then in the proceeding verses explained the meaning of such term. Among some verses, Allah has used an Arabic idiom ‘Wama-Adraaka( and what may let you know’ or ‘and what shall explain thee’) to stress on the importance of a particular unknown event or heavenly body. This type of questioning occurs 12 times in Holy Quran. These verses are

 

 In chapter 69, Al-Haaqa, Verse 3

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا الۡحَآقَّۃُ ؕ﴿۳﴾

And what will make thee realize what the Sure Reality is? (3)

In Chapter 74, Al-Muddaththir, Verse 27

وَ  مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا سَقَرُ ﴿ؕ۲۷﴾

And what will explain to thee what Hell-Fire is? (27)

In Chapter 77, Al Mursalat, Verse 14

وَ  مَاۤ   اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا یَوۡمُ الۡفَصۡلِ ﴿ؕ۱۴﴾

And what will explain to thee what is the Day of Sorting out? (14)

In Chapter 82, Al-Infitar, Verse 17, 18

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا یَوۡمُ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿ۙ۱۷﴾

ثُمَّ  مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا یَوۡمُ الدِّیۡنِ ﴿ؕ۱۸﴾

And what will explain to thee what the Day of Judgment is? (17)

Again what will explain to thee what the Day of Judgment is? (18)

 

In Chapter 83, Al-Mutaffifin, Verse 8

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا سِجِّیۡنٌ ؕ﴿۸﴾

And what will explain to thee what Sijjin is? (8)

In Chapter 83, Al-Mutaffifin, Verse 19

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا عِلِّیُّوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۱۹﴾

And what will explain to thee whet `Illiyun is? (19)

In Chapter 86, At-Tariq, Verse 2

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا الطَّارِقُ ۙ﴿۲﴾

And what will explain to thee what the Night-Visitant is? (2)

In Chapter 90, Al-Balad, Verse 12

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا الۡعَقَبَۃُ ﴿ؕ۱۲﴾

And what will explain to thee, the path that is steep? (12)

In Chapter 97, Al-Qadr, Verse 2

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا لَیۡلَۃُ  الۡقَدۡرِ ؕ﴿۲﴾

And what will explain to thee what the Night of Power is? (2)

In Chapter 101, Al-Qaria, Verse 3

وَ  مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا الۡقَارِعَۃُ ؕ﴿۳﴾

And what will explain to thee what the (Day) of Noise and Clamour is? (3)

In Chapter 101, Al-Qaria, Verse 10

وَ مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا ہِیَہۡ ﴿ؕ۱۰﴾

And what will explain to thee what this (bottomless-pit) is? (10)

In Chapter 104, Al-Humaza, Verse 5

وَ  مَاۤ  اَدۡرٰىکَ مَا  الۡحُطَمَۃُ ؕ﴿۵﴾

And what will explain to thee That which Breaks to Pieces? (5)

The above verses are mysterious in lot of sense. At the same time, they convey a message that, Allah wants us to deeply think about them. I don’t know why, these verses have immensely fascinated them.

Technical Conferences in India – The rise of Educational Mafia

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Arranging technical conferences in govt. and private engineering colleges has become a revenue generating business in India. I was going through different conferences that are being held in India in the fields of computer science and was totally shocked at the registration fee for each of these conferences. Registration fee in the range of $200 – $500 is ridiculous for the economy like India.

Now, let’s try to understand the facts. I run a discussion community called “Technical Research papers” on Orkut and it has over 1500 members. Most of these members are students, who aren’t aware much about research and how technical papers needs to be written. After moderating the community for more than a year, one thing that was clearly evident that, majority of the students in India don’t care about research. All they want is a tag of publishing a research paper to enhance their chances for securing an admission in a university (mostly foreign universities in US/Australia/Europe). These students pick the research papers from internet and publish it claiming that it’s their own. Apparently, they don’t even realize that its plagiarism. This is where the educational mafia assists such students.

The conference organizers are well aware that majority of the Indian students are doing plagiarism and they also know that, these students desperately need a publication to their credit to get an admission in a university. This is where the ‘give-and-take’ relationship begins. Or rather, I should say, educational mafia takes over. International and National Conferences are organized by govt. and private educational institutes that accept plagiarized papers. The trick here is that, these conferences generally have inflated registration free, something of the range $200-$500. Considering Indian economy, this price is too high, however, the organizers of the conferences are well aware that, they will receive papers from students who want to publish papers at any cost.

Now, I don’t mean to say, all the conferences organized in India are of this type and all the Indian students do plagiarism. However, majority of the conference are of that type and majority of the students do plagiarism. When you question these organizers, they act like mafia. Typically, when asked for scholarship/registration fee waiver, they would simply reject the paper. In fact, there is no concept of scholarship/fee waiver in majority of the conferences. The worst thing about all this fraud is, it is being done by highly educated professors. When you meet them in person and question them, they would say “they are promoting research among students and they are being lenient so that student attends conferences and learns about research’. That’s a very lame excuse. If they want to promote research among students, they should arrange workshops for students so that they learn the art of research and publishing papers. Accepting plagiarized papers should be strictly avoided.

In India, AICTE provides funding for educational institutions to arrange conferences. Even if a particular institution fails to acquire funding from AICTE, the institution should fund the conference. However, majority of the govt. and private colleges don’t take this route. Instead, they arrange the conferences purely from the money they obtain from the registration fees from the participants. And to make things worse, they try to derive profit out of it.

I wonder, for how long this education mafia and plagiarism would continue in India. And I fear, this will deeply affect the reputation of Indian researchers…

Proposal for my next book – Unseen Cosmos

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Nature of the Book Proposed:  Popular science

Title (tentative) of proposed book: Unseen Cosmos

Discipline/Subject: Cosmological sciences

Current status of book: Partially written

Key features of the book: 

The book ‘Unseen Cosmos’ is the new modified version of book “Cosmos Redefined” written by the same author in 2005. Cosmos Redefined was published by Cafet Innova Publications in 2008. The feedback received for Cosmos Redefined led the author to work further on the new version. Unseen Cosmos describes the journey of mankind on exploring the unseen corners of the universe through theories, experiments and predictions. The first few chapters of the book describe our knowledge in cosmological sciences and the march that we have made in understanding the creation of universe. Subsequent chapters question the correctness of accepted scientific theories through thought provoking examples and eventually proposing a new radical view. The radical view is intuitively compared with String theory, Standard model and Quantum mechanical ideas and developed into full fledged theory. Some of the key features of the book are

 

1.       Written for both science students and non-science students by using simple English vocabulary and day-to-day examples.

2.       Briefly describes all major theories that are accepted in cosmological sciences. An attempt is made to showcase the amazing results obtained through these theories by taking the reader through black holes, big bang, galaxies, atomic and sub-atomic structures, strings and so on.

3.       Outlines the major problems that are being faced by cosmological sciences and provokes the reader to think, by giving simple examples.

4.       Presents a radical view, an idea that can change our perception towards universe through an elegant theory.