Stuck in Bandh–Can I run over my car over rioters?

Standard

Supreme Court of India has declared ‘Bandh’ as unconstitutional in several of its judgments. Here’s an abstract of one such judgment “Held High Court was right in its conclusion that there cannot be any right to call or enforce a `Bandh’ which interferes with the exercise of fundamental freedoms of other citizens-Fundamental Rights of the people as a whole cannot be subservient to the claim of Fundamental Right of an individual or only a section of people-Distinction drawn by High Court between a `Bandh’ and a call for general strike or `Hartal’ is well made out-Held the impugned judgment does not call for any interference. CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION : Civil Appeal Nos. 7728-29 of 1997.” ‘Rasta-rokos’ or ‘bandhs’ are clear violation of Indian constitution.

According to Article 51A of Indian Constitution, the fundamental duties of Indian citizens include

“It shall be the duty of every citizen of India— (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;  (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compass ion for living creatures; (h) to develop the scientific temper , humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;  (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement. (k) **who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

** Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 4 (which is yet not in force, date to be notified by the government)”

Now, if you read the forth duty, it says “to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so”. Here, an obvious question is… who would take a call on when to defend the country? Constitution of India, doesn’t explicitly names certain XYZ would be the person who would take this call. I believe, whenever some individual or organization announces ‘bandh’, it is the fundamental duty of Indian citizens to defend the nation by acting against the people who are imposing bandh. This is what our constitution says.

If you are among those who want to abide the constitution of India, then here are the things you can do. Whenever someone declares a bandh, carry a HD camera and record unlawful happenings. You can place the camera at the front glass while driving the vehicle through a Bandh area. In most of the cases, criminals are acquitted because of lack of evidence. Irrespective of whether you have been impacted by the unlawful act, submitting evidence (if you happen to have or witness an act of crime) is duty of responsible citizens. You can hand-over the video to any of the news channels anonymously. Or just upload the video on YouTube.

Also, in cases of emergency… You have the right to self-defend. According to Section 97, you can self-defend you property too. Property includes anything that is movable or immovable, therefore an automobile is an property and if it’s attacked you have right to defend it. If you want to know… to what extent you can do to defend yourself and property, then do read IPC section 100. In case you are wondering… say you are travelling and stuck in a unlawful Bandh… can you run-over your vehicle over the rioters to avoid physical harm? I ran several queries on Judgment Information System (http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/fsrgqry.aspx Yes, all Supreme Court Judgments are digitalized) to identify whether there has been cases where one has ran over people using a vehicle to self-protect but I haven’t found any. In any case, running over using a vehicle to self-protect is not a good idea unless you have enough evidence to overwhelmingly prove acute death threat in court. If I had a degree in Law, I would have a filed a PIL about this. I believe, citizens should be permitted to run over the rioters for escaping the riot zone.

Following are some of the Indian Penal Code sections that you need to know, in case of emergency.

Indian Penal Code: Section 149: Every member of unlawful assembly guilty of offence committed in prosecution of common object

“If an offence is committed by any member of an unlawful assembly in prosecution of the common object of that assembly, or such as the members or that assembly knew to be likely to be committed in prosecution of that object, every person who, at the time of the committing of that offence, is a member of the same assembly, is guilty of that offence.”

Indian Penal Code: Section 150: Hiring, or conniving at hiring, of persons to join unlawful assembly

Whoever hires or engages, or employs, or promotes, or connives at the hiring, engagement or employment of any person to join or become a member or any unlawful assembly, shall be punishable as a member of such unlawful assembly, and for any offence which may be committed by any such person as a member of such unlawful assembly in pursuance of such hiring, engagement or employment, in the same manner as if he had been a member of such unlawful assembly, or himself had committed such offence.

Indian Penal Code: Section 151: Knowingly joining or continuing in assembly of five or more persons after it has been commanded to disperse

Whoever knowingly joins or continues in any assembly of five or more persons likely to cause a disturbance of the public peace, after such assembly has been lawfully commanded to disperse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

Section 96. Things done in private defence

Nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence.

Indian Penal Code: Section 97: Right of private defense of the body and of property

Every person has a right, subject to the restrictions contained in section 99, to defend— First.— His own body, and the body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body; Secondly.—The property, whether movable or immovable, of himself or of any other person, against any act which is an offence falling under the definition of theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass, or which is an attempt to commit theft, rob­bery, mischief or criminal trespass.

Indian Penal Code: Section 99. Act against which there is no right of private defense

There is no right of private defence against an act which does not reasonable cause the apprehension of death or of grievous hurt, if done, or attempted to be done, by a public servant acting in good faith under colour of his office, though that act, may not be strictly justifiable by law. There is no right of private defence against an act which does not reasonable cause the apprehension of death or of grievous hurt, if done, or attempted to be done, by the direction of a public servant acting in good faith under colour of his office, though that direction may not be strictly justifiable by law. There is no right of private defence in cases in which there is time to have recourse to the protection of the public authorities.

Extent to which the right may be exercised: The right to private defence in no case extends to the inflicting of more harm that it is necessary to inflict for the purpose of defence. Explanation 1: A person is not deprived of the right of private defence against an act done, or attempted to be done, by a public servant, as such, unless he knows or has reason to believe, that the person doing the act is such public servant. Explanation 2: A person is not deprived of the right of private defence against an act done, or attempted to be done, by the direction of a public servant, unless he knows, or has reason to believe, that the person doing the act is acting by such direction, or unless such person states the authority under which he acts, or if he has authority in writing, unless he produces such authority, if demanded.

Indian Penal Code: Section 100: When the right of private defense of the body extends to causing death

The right of private defence of the body extends, under the restrictions mentioned in the last preceding section, to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the assailant, if the offence which occasions the exercise of the right be of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely:— First.— Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehension that death will otherwise be the consequence of such assault; Secondly.—Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehen­sion that grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such assault; Thirdly.— An assault with the intention of committing rape; Fourthly.—An assault with the intention of gratifying unnatural lust; Fifthly.— An assault with the intention of kidnapping or abduct­ing; Sixthly.— An assault with the intention of wrongfully confining a person, under circumstances which may reasonably cause him to apprehend that he will be unable to have recourse to the public authorities for his release.

Indian Penal Code: Section 103: When the right of private defence of property extends to causing death

The right of private defence of property extends, under the restrictions mentioned in section 99, to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the wrong-doer, if the offence, the committing of which, or the attempting to commit which, occasions the exercise of the right, be an offence of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely:— First.— Robbery; Secondly.—House-breaking by night; Thirdly.— Mischief by fire committed on any building, tent or vessel, which building, tent or vessel is used as a human dwell­ing, or as a place for the custody of property; Fourthly.—Theft, mischief, or house-trespass, under such circum­stances as may reasonably cause apprehension that death or griev­ous hurt will be the consequence, if such right of private de­fence is not exercised.

Advertisements

Typing ‘Sall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam’ in MS Word and MS Office Documents

Standard

All Muslims are obligated to say ‘Sall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam’, whenever they hear or write the name of Holy Prophet Mohammed  صلى الله   عليه وسلم  As you have noticed, in the previous sentence I wrote ‘Sall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam’ in Arabic after the name of the Holy Prophet. In Holy Quran, Allah says “Indeed Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet; O People who believe! Send blessings and abundant salutations upon him” – (Chapter 33, Verse 56).

The phrase ‘Sall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam’ means ‘May Allah honor him and grant him peace’. While Muslims do say ‘Sall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam’ when they hear the name of Holy Prophet Mohammed ( صلى الله عليه وسلم), but when the name is being written in MSWord or Outlook, they face with challenge of writing the phrase in Arabic font. As you can see, it’s not easy to type the phrase in Arabic, especially when you are working on an English keyboard. To overcome this challenge, it became a commonly accepted practice among Muslims to write the English translation of ‘صلى الله عليه وسلم, that is ‘May Allah honor him and grant him peace’.

However, some people, in order to save some time and energy, have further reduced the phrase to ‘Peace be upon Him’. If one translates ‘Peace be upon Him’ in Arabic, it is ‘عليه السلام‎’ but not ‘صلى الله عليه وسلم’. Muslims are obligated to say ‘ عليه السلام  ’ for archangels and Prophets of Islam except Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم). For Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم ), a Muslim must say صلى الله عليه وسلم. Yet, many of the Muslims, continue to use the phrase ‘Peace be upon Him’ for Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم) too.

In recent times, as an act of laziness, Muslims have started using the abbreviation ‘PBUH’ for ‘Peace be Upon Him’. Several Islamic scholars have severely criticized such abbreviation. Several Fatwas (orders based on Islamic laws) have given against usage of abbreviations instead of writing  صلى الله عليه وسلم . I must accept that, I have also committed this sin of writing abbreviation. I pray to Allah for forgive me for my sins.  

So, this demands a question, how should a Muslim get over the challenge of writing ‘صلى الله عليه وسلم’ in Arabic font and not commit any sin by using abbreviations? Is there a solution to it?

I did some research on this and found that, there is indeed an elegant and easy solution. In computers, every character is assigned a unique code called ‘Unicode’. Formally, ‘Unicode’ is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation and handling of text expressed in most of the world’s writing systems. Whether it is English or French or Arabic, every character that can be typed, is assigned a Unicode. In order to reduce the length of the code, hexadecimal system is used instead of decimal system. Without going into too much of technical details, here’s an elegant solution to typing ﷺ in a MS word or any MS Office documents.

To type in MS Word or any MS office Document:

(1) Type FDFA.

(2) Type ‘Alt+x’. (Hold on to ‘Alt’ key and press ‘x’ key.) As soon as you type ‘Alt+x”, ‘FDFA’ is converted to ﷺ

Unicode for ‘ﷺ’ is ‘FDFA’.

Below table gives Unicode Values of common Arabic Words/Phrases:

Arabic Phrase/Word

English Transliteration

Unicode

Allah

FDF2

Sall Allāhu ʿalay-hi wa-sallam

FDFA

Mohammed

FDF4

Akbar

FDF3

Rasool

FDF6

Jallajalaalahu

FDFB

Salla

FDF9

Wa-salam

FDF8

Alayhe

FDF7

Salam

FDF5

Qala

FDF1

Salla

FDF0

For example, if you want to type ﷲ, then

(1) Type ‘FDF2’.

(2) Type ‘Alt + x’ (Hold on to ‘Alt’ key and press ‘x’ key). MS Word or any Office document will then convert FDF2 to ﷲ.

For the Unicode for all the Arabic characters, refer to this link.

Note: This technique works for all MS Office products. In case, due to some issue, if it doesn’t work for you, then add ‘U+’ to the Unicode and repeat the steps mentioned above. For example, for typing ﷺ, type ‘U+FDFA’ and type Alt+x.

To know the general techniques for inputting characters via Unicode in Windows, Mac, Linux, etc., check this Wikipedia link. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode_input).

Effective Career Planning Discussion

Standard

For an employee, having an effective and open career planning discussion with the manager is must for career growth and job satisfaction. Today, I had a great discussion with my manager on my career plan and what I must do to enhance my career growth.  In this blog post, I am sharing most of the non-confidential things that we discussed during our career planning meeting (I can’t share confidential details such as my salary, organization and promotions for obvious reasons). There are two reasons why I am sharing this.

1.      Often we have this type of meeting behind closed doors and then we forget. By putting it in open, I have to set goals for myself. This is how I was in 2011.  In future, I can always look back and say, where I was and in which direction I chose to take.

2.      This might also be useful for other employees and managers who are looking for information on how to have career planning discussion.

To begin with, let’s first understand the ground rules for effective career discussion between employee and manager. From the employee point of view, these are the ground rules

(1)    You must be open with your manager about your professional ambitions

(2)    You must be self-critical about your weakness and limitations

(3)    You must give a deep thought to the feedback given by your manager

(4)    You must respect the opinion of your manager, even if you disagree

(5)    You must draft a career plan, immediately post your discussion

From the manager’s point of view, these are the ground rules  

(1)    You must carefully listen and understand the ambitions of your employee

(2)    You must provide realistic and true assessment of your employee’s abilities

(3)    You must provide fair feedback on areas where the employee needs to improve

(4)    You must put sincere effort in helping the employee grow in his/her career

(5)    You must be open enough to tell to your employee on areas where you can’t help  

If anywhere the ground rules are violated then the discussion won’t produce useful results. Also, both the employee and the manager must realize that, career planning discussion is not just about ‘career-growth of the employee’ but also about ‘how the employee can contribute to the organization in the most effective way’. This is often ignored in career discussions. Another reality of career discussion is that, employees must always keep in mind that their ‘manager is a human being with limited abilities’ i.e. ‘they cannot expect the manager to solve all their problems’. You have to be realistic.

Now, the next most important thing for an effective career discussions is ‘pre-planning of what you are going to discuss’. In my case, I used a template of nine questions for self-assessment. These nine questions were prepared by the managing director of my organization. By the way, I didn’t use these nine questions template because these questions are prepared by some high level guy in my organization but because they are fairly good for self-assessment. I spent about 45 minutes answering these questions.   

1.      Where do you want to be in next 3-5 years?

Answer: In next 3-5 years, from the technical point of view, I would like to be in a position to design and review large-scale enterprise applications. At the same time, I would like to be a fine orator in fields of science, technology and politics. By 2014, I would like to be author of at least four books. 

2.      Do you have a mentor? How often are you meeting with them?

Answer: Nope. I would love to have one. 

3.      What do you think are your strengths?

Answer: Over the period of time, I have realized my strengths are

(i)    Being fearless towards taking on technical and non-technical challenges in life. One of my childhood dreams was to be a warrior, someone on the lines of Achilles and Alexander. While as I grew up I realized, I am not born in an era of warriors, however, I have found that the qualities of warrior still apply. Whenever a new challenge arrives in life, I would prefer to face it like a warrior than make a compromising decision.

(ii)   I have huge interest in ‘writing’. This has reflected in my ability to write technical research papers, blogs, articles, etc. I would like to put more effort in further developing this skill and turn myself into an influential author. 

4.      What do you think are your weaknesses?

Answer: I believe following are my weakness.

(i)    After spending three years in software industry, I somehow haven’t fallen in love with it. Because of this, whenever a new software technology comes up, it doesn’t create an excitement within me. Lack of excitement means, I won’t be learning a technology until there is a necessity.

(ii)   In general sense, I am not the kind of person who would spend excess amount of time on a particular activity. This has reflected in my varied interests and hobbies. Long story short, I can’t be subject matter expert in one particular technology. Instead over a period of time, I would prefer to gain insights in every technology I come across. 

5.      What do you think are your areas for improvement?

Answer: Couple of areas that I feel there is an immediate need for development

(i)   I would like to get a strong grip over .NET 4.0 and Windows Azure programming skills.

(ii)  I would like to improve my inter-personal communication skills, especially interacting with the people who have skewed opinions (technical and political). Current challenge is to figure out a way of changing the mindset of people in minimum amount of time. 

6.      A year from now what do you want to be different in your skill set?

Answer: I would like to gain core development skills in .NET 4.0. I am also interested in developing skills in web UX design. 

7.      What kind of work appeals to your heart? What are the kinds of things you LOVE to do?

Answer: From last two years, I have enjoyed meeting external customers of Microsoft and helping them resolve problems. In these two years, I have realized,

(i)    I enjoy the work when I am given the authority and responsibility to handle things

(ii)   I enjoy the work when I am not being micro-managed.

(iii) I have thoroughly enjoyed delivering trainings to customers 

8.      What kind of tree captures your growth aspirations? What are the ways in which you want to grow – horizontal vs. vertical vs. below the surface growth?

Answer:  At this stage of my career, I would prefer to ‘below the surface growth’. I haven’t set any precise goals for what I want to be in 10 years from now. And to make that decision, first I must know what truly I want. Horizontal or vertical growth would be unnecessary distraction before I make that decision. 

9.      What kind of Star recognition do you like? How do you like to be rewarded? In public or in private? And what are the kind of rewards that motivate you?

Answer: I would prefer being awarded in private for my work. As for as ‘what kind of rewards that motivate me’, well, that would depend on what kind of rewards that are on offer!

Once I had the answers ready for the nine-questions, we decided for a one-hour career discussion meeting. Make sure that, before the meeting, your mood is good. Just to avoid any unforeseen situations, I cancelled all meetings three hours prior to the career planning discussion. Being in right state of mind and good mood is absolute must. And I must confess I spend couple of hours watching videos on YouTube just to relax myself.

We didn’t decide on a strict agenda for the meeting, but at the end this is how the time got distributed around the three tasks.

Task

Discussion Time

Self-Assessment – Going through 9 questions and the employee’s answers

20 minutes

Discussion of employee abilities/skills

20 minutes

Manager Feedback

10 minutes

 

As the meeting started, for few minutes my manager and I had a candid conversation about some non-sense. And yes, I told him that I am going to blog this career discussion, for which he replied ‘if that’s going to help you impress few girls, then go ahead!’ Once the serious discussion started, we went through each of the nine-questions and the answers I have written down. Basically, based on my answers, my manager was assessing ‘where do I stand now’ and ‘which directions would be suitable for my career growth’. For each of the questions, my manager asked me ‘examples’ on why I have written a particular thing. Once we were done with the questions, we used a table to measure my core abilities. These abilities are defined below.

Leadership: Ability to influence and persuade.

Communication: Able to communicate via emails, presentations, writing, etc.

Shipping: Ability to track things and get work done on time.

Technical: In-depth knowledge regarding features/specs, development, testing, operations, build/release, etc.

Business: Domain knowledge and insights about our products and competitive products, customers and ability to provide breakthrough insights on paradigm shifts in software technologies. 

After a brief discussion, my manager provided his feedback on where I stand, what I must do to improve and what opportunities I must pursue. Here’s the feedback given by my manager. As far the skill ratings is concerned, I think he has rated me slightly above than I am.

 

Low

Medium

High

Leadership

   

X

Communication

 

X

 

Shipping

 

X

 

Technical

 

X

 

Business

X

   

 

Also, based on my work, this is the feedback given by my manager on the areas that I need to improve upon  

(i)                Task management: Develop an organized way of managing and following up on tasks. Sometimes, I commit to some tasks but due to other high priority works, I missed out delivering low-priority tasks. Also, sometimes, I don’t follow-up on the low-priority tasks.  

(ii)              Business Skills: I don’t have much knowledge about the competitive technologies offered outside of Microsoft. Having extensive knowledge of both Microsoft and non-Microsoft technologies would help me in developing business acumen.

(iii)             Technical Skills: I need to improve on core programming skills especially on .NET 4.0 and Windows Azure.  Also, I need to get some expertize on using Team Foundation Server (TFS). Also, push further on technical knowledge with regard to application architecture review from performance standpoint. Recommended to attend online trainings in free time.

(iv)             Influencing Abilities: Identify effective techniques for persuading stubborn customers to do the right things. Recommend reading the book ‘Great dialogues by Plato’.

(v)              Mentor: Identify a good mentor within Microsoft on career and technical guidance.  

After the end of the discussion, I documented every point we discussed. Overall, I think this was a positive discussion. We discussed several things, which I hadn’t thought about earlier. For example, discussion about the competitive technologies in the market stumped me. Post discussion I realized that my business acumen is severely lacking. Also, the discussion about simple things such as ‘task management’ was very fruitful. Many times, I think I am doing well in my day-to-day job but little things like forgetting a low-priority task might create a negative impression. The good thing about my manager is that, he is very solution oriented than merely highlighting the problem. That helps in a big way. 

With that, I want to conclude this long post. I don’t know whether it would be useful for anyone for having a meaningful career planning conversation, but this will definitely serve as document that will remind me what I was in February 2011.

 

Microscopic captures–Part2

Standard

Here’s a little experiment I did. I took a tiny drop of water, approximately around 1mm in diameter. When I put it under microscope, it quickly evaporated. I recorded the whole process of evaporation. Here’s the YouTube link.

Evaporation of water–Microscopic View

As you can see, first the thickness of the water drop reduces… and then it breaks apart (at 1:00). At notice, a micro-organism floating in the water.

Here’s some other microscopic shots I have got.

image

Fig: Feather of a mosquito

image

Fig: Sticky fluid

image

Fig: Head of the ant

image

Fig: Tip of mosquito leg

image

Fig: Leg of Mosquito

image

Fig: Red thread made up of cotton straws dipped in water.

image

Fig: Red Cotton straw

More pictures to follow soon.

Microscopic captures – Part1

Standard

An year back I added a microscope to my collection of gadgets, however, didn’t get much time and interest to play around with it. Finally, I got some time to experiment and I must admit, I am falling in love with microscopic world. Here are some microscopic shots, will be sharing more in future posts.

clip_image002

Fig: Mosquito head: The dots are the eyes of mosquito.

clip_image004

Fig: Feature of the mosquito.

clip_image006

Fig: 40x Close-up of Cotton

clip_image008

Fig: Plant Cells

clip_image010

Fig: Plant cells. The odd cell in the middle could either be a parasite or a starch cell.

clip_image012

Fig: Skin cells: I distinctly remember drawing this diagram back in school.

clip_image013

Fig: Stem Cells of a plant

Technical Conferences in India – The rise of Educational Mafia

Standard

Arranging technical conferences in govt. and private engineering colleges has become a revenue generating business in India. I was going through different conferences that are being held in India in the fields of computer science and was totally shocked at the registration fee for each of these conferences. Registration fee in the range of $200 – $500 is ridiculous for the economy like India.

Now, let’s try to understand the facts. I run a discussion community called “Technical Research papers” on Orkut and it has over 1500 members. Most of these members are students, who aren’t aware much about research and how technical papers needs to be written. After moderating the community for more than a year, one thing that was clearly evident that, majority of the students in India don’t care about research. All they want is a tag of publishing a research paper to enhance their chances for securing an admission in a university (mostly foreign universities in US/Australia/Europe). These students pick the research papers from internet and publish it claiming that it’s their own. Apparently, they don’t even realize that its plagiarism. This is where the educational mafia assists such students.

The conference organizers are well aware that majority of the Indian students are doing plagiarism and they also know that, these students desperately need a publication to their credit to get an admission in a university. This is where the ‘give-and-take’ relationship begins. Or rather, I should say, educational mafia takes over. International and National Conferences are organized by govt. and private educational institutes that accept plagiarized papers. The trick here is that, these conferences generally have inflated registration free, something of the range $200-$500. Considering Indian economy, this price is too high, however, the organizers of the conferences are well aware that, they will receive papers from students who want to publish papers at any cost.

Now, I don’t mean to say, all the conferences organized in India are of this type and all the Indian students do plagiarism. However, majority of the conference are of that type and majority of the students do plagiarism. When you question these organizers, they act like mafia. Typically, when asked for scholarship/registration fee waiver, they would simply reject the paper. In fact, there is no concept of scholarship/fee waiver in majority of the conferences. The worst thing about all this fraud is, it is being done by highly educated professors. When you meet them in person and question them, they would say “they are promoting research among students and they are being lenient so that student attends conferences and learns about research’. That’s a very lame excuse. If they want to promote research among students, they should arrange workshops for students so that they learn the art of research and publishing papers. Accepting plagiarized papers should be strictly avoided.

In India, AICTE provides funding for educational institutions to arrange conferences. Even if a particular institution fails to acquire funding from AICTE, the institution should fund the conference. However, majority of the govt. and private colleges don’t take this route. Instead, they arrange the conferences purely from the money they obtain from the registration fees from the participants. And to make things worse, they try to derive profit out of it.

I wonder, for how long this education mafia and plagiarism would continue in India. And I fear, this will deeply affect the reputation of Indian researchers…